I think this relates to the story of the three musketeers. This is because when Senka did not leave Shukov behind it reminded me of what the three musketeers used to say one for all and all for one (which to means leave no man behind). And i thought it connected to story how all of the men would take the blame and not just one and they would always try to get the other men out of trouble. It does not only connect to Senka but also to the squad leader, how he would take the blame for the squad members.
I think this connects to the army also. I think this connects to the army because of the strict rules and the limited ration. Of course the army is not so mean as to which they make the ration tiny but none of the less you still get rations and that connects to the book because they also get rations but not whenever they want, same as i believe on the battlefield when you have limited supplies till the next truck. The rules because the prisoners have to do every thing the guards say also like the commanders and captains in the army.