"They panted like mad dogs. All you could hear was their hoarse breathing." (pg 107.) The stylistic technique used here is simile, to show that Senka and Shukhov were breathing very heavily after running.
"Why do these bastards make the work day so short? We were just getting into our stride when they call it off. " (pg 105.) I think this is an example of irony, because Tiurin didn't mean it. Since he is a prisoner, he obviously doesn't like working there, but he said that because he was kidding.
"That damned Modavian. Those damned guards. This damned life." (pg. 115) A list of three is used here to show that Shukhov really hates his life as a prisoner, and everything that is included.
The book One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich doesn't have many rhetorical devices except for flashbacks or memories, and I think they aren't necessary in this book. It is not a fictional story or a speech, but one day in the life of a prisoner, so I think it makes sense that there aren't many stylistic techniques.